Search Result: 173 Records found
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Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults
  • Authors Gracia LT Fellmeth, Joanna Nurse, Catherine Heffernan, Shakiba Habibula, Dinesh Sethi
  • Published date 2013-11-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.14
Pre-graduation transition services for persons with autism spectrum disorders: effects on employment outcomes
  • Authors John D. Westbrook, Carlton J. Fong, Chad Nye, Ann Williams, Oliver Wendt, Tara Cortopassi
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Pre-graduation transition services for persons with autism spectrum disorders: effects on employment outcomes
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.11
Mentoring interventions to affect juvenile delinquency and associated problems
  • Authors Patrick Tolan, David Henry, Michael Schoeny, Arin Bass, Peter Lovegrove, Emily Nichols
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Mentoring interventions to affect juvenile delinquency and associated problems
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.4073/csr.2013.10
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) interventions to improve the employability and employment of young people in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Janice Tripney, Jorge Garcia Hombrados, Mark Newman, Kimberly Hovish, Chris Brown, Katarzyna T. Steinka-Fry, Eric Wilkey
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) interventions to improve the employability and employment of young people in low- and middle-income countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.9
  • Records available in English, Hindi, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Technical and vocational education and training for young people has a small positive effect on employment outcomes

    Youth in developing countries are three times more likely than adults to work in the informal sector in jobs with offering limited personal and social benefits. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) are a means to expand opportunities for marginalised youth. TVET interventions have a small but positive effect on employment outcomes for young people.

    What did the review study?

    Many young people in developing countries work in low quality jobs that have low potential for career development or supporting economic growth. This is particularly problematic for developing countries given the continually significant labour productivity gap between developing and developed regions.

    With increasing emphasis on work and skills based solutions to economic completion and poverty there is a renewed focus on TVET. This review examines the effectiveness of these TVET interventions on employment and employability outcomes of young people in low and middle-income countries, and which factors may moderate these effects.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of technical and vocational education intervention in developing countries on employment and employability outcomes of young people. The review summarises findings from 26 studies conducted in Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, East Asia, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Participants were between the ages of 15-24. Ten studies were used for statistical meta-analysis.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies had to (1) study a TVET intervention, (2) report outcomes for youth aged 15-24 located in low-or middle-income countries; and (3) use an experimental or valid quasi-experimental research design.

    A total of 26 studies were included in the review. The studies assess the effectiveness of 20 different TVET interventions from various countries in Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, East Asia, South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The study settings included ten upper-middle income countries–Argentina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Latvia, Mexico, Panama and Peru; two lower-middle income countries – India and Bhutan; and one low-income country – Kenya.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall, TVET interventions have a small but positive effect on all but one of the employment outcomes measured.

    However, there was considerable variation in effects between studies. A main factor driving these differences was study quality. Lower quality studies find a significantly larger effect. Hence the meta-analysed effect size is inflated, and should be based on studies of at least medium quality.

    No one model of TVET intervention was found to be better than others and there was inadequate statistical power to detect moderating effects of the variables tested.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    While the review provides some evidence of TVET interventions having positive effects on employability and employment for young people, several limitations of both the included studies and the review itself prevents one from drawing direct and strong inferences from the result of the analyses.

    So, in the absence of evidence in support of a particular, and possibly expensive, intervention, opting for the cheapest and/or most culturally acceptable models may be the best approach. At the same time, because the effects observed in this review are generally small and were difficult to detect, it is of some importance that future programmes are evaluated rigorously and that the different stakeholders involved think carefully about how to improve programmes to create larger effects on the outcomes. To build the evidence base further, many more of the TVET interventions currently in existence in developing countries need to be rigorously evaluated, and the results reported and disseminated efficiently.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until September 2012. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in September 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

  • Hindi

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Hindi.

Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Authors Maia Lindstrøm, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, Krystyna Kowalski, Trine Filges, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.7
Relative effectiveness of conditional and unconditional cash transfers for schooling outcomes in developing countries
  • Authors Sarah Baird, Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Berk Ozler, Michael Woolcock
  • Published date 2013-09-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Relative effectiveness of conditional and unconditional cash transfers for schooling outcomes in developing countries
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  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.8
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Enforcing conditions makes cash transfers more effective in increasing enrolments

    Cash transfers – conditional or not – improve school enrolment and attendance, but there is limited evidence of effects on learning outcomes. If conditions are monitored and enforced the effect on enrolment is greater.

    What is the review about?

    In many countries, primary school enrolment is still not universal. More than 20 per cent of children do not attend school in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and around of a third of those who do enrol drop out before completing sixth grade. Secondary school enrolments are far lower. In many countries, fewer than half of all children attend secondary school. And the quality of education is low, with many students having low literacy and maths skills after several years of schooling.

    Cash transfer programmes, targeted at poor families, have become a popular means of tackling low enrolment. Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) for schooling are provided to poor households provided that children of school age enrol and attend school. Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) are provided without conditions.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of conditional and unconditional cash transfer programmes on education outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review summarizes findings from 35 studies.

    What were the main findings of the review?

    What studies are included?

    Eligible studies evaluate either conditional or unconditional cash transfer programmes, the

    conditional programmes having at least one condition explicitly related to schooling. Reported outcomes must include at least one quantifiable measure of enrolment, attendance or test scores.

    Thirty-five studies are included in the review: five UCTs, 26 CCTs, and four studies that directly compare CCTs to UCTs.

    Do cash transfers improve education outcomes?

    Both conditional and unconditional cash transfer programmes increase enrolment compared to no program. But they have at best a small effect on learning outcomes, although the evidence base on learning is small.

    Do conditions matter?

    Cash transfers have a larger effect on enrolment if there are conditions that are strictly monitored and enforced. Programs that are explicitly conditional, monitor compliance and penalize non-compliance have substantively larger effects—increasing the odds of enrolment by 60% compared to less than 20% for programs with no conditions (see Figure).

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The search for this review was updated in April 2013, and the review published in September 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

'Scared straight' and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency
  • Authors Anthony Petrosino, John Buehler, Carolyn Turpin-Petrosino
  • Published date 2013-05-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title 'Scared straight' and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.5
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Scared straight programs result in more crime

    Scared straight awareness programs aim to deter crime and criminal behaviour by providing first-hand experience of prison life and interaction with adult inmate to juvenile delinquents or children at risk of becoming delinquent. Contrary to their purpose, scared straight programs fail to deter crime, leading to more offending behaviour not less.

    What did the review study?

    Scared straight programs involve organised visits to prison by juvenile delinquents or children at risk of committing crime, also called pre-delinquents.

    Scared straight and similar programs are promoted as a crime prevention strategy, identifying children at risk of committing crime to discourage them from any future criminal conduct. This review assesses the effect of these programs on criminal behaviours by juvenile delinquents or pre-delinquents.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effect of scared straight and similar programs on criminal behaviours by juvenile delinquents or children at risk of committing crime. The review summarises findings from nine studies conducted in the USA. Participants include juveniles and young adults between the ages 14-20. A total of 946 juveniles or young adults participated in all nine experimental studies.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies tested the effects of any program involving the organized visits of juvenile delinquents or pre-delinquents to prisons with juveniles and young adults between the ages of 14-20 as participants. Only studies that had used a random or quasi-random experimental design with no-treatment control condition, and at least one outcome measure of “post-visit” criminal behaviour were considered.

    All studies were conducted in eight different states in the USA, with two of the studies taking place in the state of Michigan.

    A total of 9 studies were included in the systematic review. The nine studies were conducted in eight different states in the United States, with no set of researchers conducting more than one experiment.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Scared straight interventions cause more harm than doing nothing. The nine studies provided no evidence for the effectiveness of scared straight or similar programs on subsequent delinquency.

    Furthermore, analysis of seven studies reporting reoffending rates showed that the intervention significantly increased the odds of offending on the part of both the juveniles and pre-delinquents.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Scared straight and similar programs are likely to have a harmful effect and increase delinquency compared to doing nothing.

    Although three of the studies reported methodological problems, two of which had implications for statistical analysis, this did not significantly affect the overall findings. Thus scared straight interventions and similar programs cannot be recommended as a crime prevention strategy. However, should agencies continue to permit such programs, rigorous evaluations of them is recommended to ensure that at, the very least, they do not cause more harm than good.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until December 2011. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in May 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Unemployment benefit exhaustion: incentive effects on job-finding rates
  • Authors Trine Filges, Lars Pico Geerdsen, Anne-Sofie Due Knudsen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen, Krystyna Kowalski
  • Published date 2013-03-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Unemployment benefit exhaustion: incentive effects on job-finding rates
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Exhaustion of unemployment benefits leads to an increase in job-finding rates among the unemployed

    There is evidence that the exhaustion of unemployment benefits encourages unemployed individuals to find work.

    What did the review study?

    Since the 1970s unemployment rates in Europe and the USA have diverged, with unemployment persistently higher in the USA. The generosity of the benefits system is one possible factor behind this difference.

    Shortening the length of unemployment benefit eligibility period is a policy instrument intended to decrease unemployment. The policy is intended to encourage productive job searches and reduce the overall unemployment level.

    This review assesses the impact of exhaustion of employment benefits on the job-finding rate for unemployed individuals.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the impact of exhaustion of employment benefits on the job-finding rate for unemployed individuals. The review summarises findings from 47 studies. The majority of studies were conducted in Europe, with just two of the studies taking place in the USA and one in Canada. Participants were unemployed individuals receiving any form of time-limited benefit during their period of being unemployed.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies tested unemployed individuals’ exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. The studies tested the exit rate from the re-employment job as a secondary outcome. Non-randomized studies as well as study designs that used a well-defined control group, i.e. unemployed persons whose benefit expiration was not immediate, were also included.

    Whilst 47 studies were identified, after allowing for study quality and data issues, only 12 studies are included in the meta-analysis. The countries represented in the meta-analysis include Canada, USA, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, Germany, Czech Republic, Austria, and Poland.The participants were unemployed individuals who received some sort of time-limited benefit during their period of unemployment.

    What are the main results in this review?

    The exhaustion of unemployment benefits encourages unemployed individuals to find work. The exhaustion of benefits results in an increase of about 80% in the exit rate from unemployment to employment. The effect starts to occur approximately two months before benefits expire, increasing as the expiration date approaches. There was no significant effect observed prior to the two months before benefits expire.

    There was insufficient evidence to address the secondary outcome of whether the prospect of benefit exhaustion has an impact on the exit rate from the re-employment job, i.e. workers soon leave the new job and return to benefits. Thus, the evidence that exhaustion of unemployment benefits reduces overall unemployment level is inconclusive.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Exhaustion of unemployment benefits leads to an increase in job-finding rates among the unemployed but only shortly prior to exhaustion and at the time of exhaustion.

    The hypothesis that shortening the benefit eligibility period may increase productive job searches has been confirmed. However, only a small number of studies provide data for re-employment exit rates so additional research is needed to assess the overall effect on unemployment.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until March 2011. This Campbell systematic review was published in March 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes
  • Authors Hilary Thomson, Siân Thomas, Eva Sellström, Mark Petticrew
  • Published date 2013-03-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.2
Interventions to reduce distress in adult victims of sexual violence and rape
  • Authors Cheryl Regehr, Ramona Alaggia, Catriona Shatford, Annabel Pitts, Michael Saini
  • Published date 2013-03-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Interventions to reduce distress in adult victims of sexual violence and rape
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.3
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