Search Result: 173 Records found
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Economic self-help group programs for improving women’s empowerment
  • Authors Carinne Brody, Thomas de Hoop, Martina Vojtkova, Ruby Warnock, Megan Dunbar, Padmini Murthy, Shari L. Dworkin
  • Published date 2015-11-02
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Economic self-help group programs for improving women’s empowerment
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.19
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Economic self-help groups empower women

    Women’s economic self-help groups (SHGs) have positive effects on the economic, social and political empowerment of women in low-and middle-income countries.

    What is the review about?

    Women have limited access to financial resources, health care, education and political participation. Governments, development agencies and grassroot organisations support women’s self-help groups to address substantial inequalities.

    Economic self-help groups (ESHG) are group programs aiming to provide women access to capital, to empower them economically. ESHG begin with a period of collective savings to facilitate intragroup lending, gradually providing larger loans. Some ESHG also include a training component on life skills, business and financial skills, and community participation.

    This review examines ESHG’s impact on women’s individual empowerment in low-and middle-income countries. Adverse outcomes from ESHG on intimate partner violence, stigma, disappointment and individual well-being are assessed.

    Finally, the review describes mechanisms by which ESHG lead to women’s empowerment.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of women’s economic self-help groups (ESHG) on individual women empowerment in low-and middle-income countries. It also examines the mechanisms that empower women through female participants’ experiences of ESHG membership. The review summarises findings from 23 quantitative studies and 11 qualitative studies. The vast majority of these studies was conducted in South Asia.

    Which studies are included in this review?

    Studies included in this review examine the impact of ESHG on the empowerment of women of all ages in low-and middle-income countries. Evidence comes from 23 quantitative studies, 17 of which are based in India and Bangladesh. Each of these studies compares the effect of ESHG with no intervention, or ‘business as usual’. Eleven qualitative studies (nine from India), used to explore the mechanisms that empower women through female ESHG participants’ perspectives are included.

    What are the main results in this review?

    ESHG have positive effects on women’s economic and political empowerment, as well as social empowerment - such as, women’s family size decision-making power and social mobility. There is no quantitative evidence to indicate positive effects on women’s psychological empowerment. However, the qualitative studies suggest that women participating in ESHG perceive themselves as psychologically empowered.

    ESHG with a training component, such as financial and business education or life skills training, have a larger effect than programs that do not involve training. Important mechanisms which facilitate empowerment are gaining financial skills (economic empowerment); gaining the capability to speak in front of others, access to household decision-making (psychological empowerment); improved networks and the experience of mutual support from and solidarity with fellow group members (social empowerment); and access to wider social participation combined with an increased understanding of political contexts and individual rights (political empowerment).

    There is no evidence of increased levels of domestic violence. Qualitative data indicate that ESHG may decrease domestic violence as women gain respect from their partners, families and access to household decision-making. Few qualitative studies report experiences of disappointment, mistrust and stigma among women who attended ESHG. ESHGs do not reach the poorest citizens. The ‘poorest of the poor’ do not participate for economic and religious reasons, and mechanisms of self-selection.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    ESHG have the potential to empower women economically, socially, and politically. Training component should be considered as a part of ESHG design to strengthen ESHG’s empowering effect. The design of ESHG should also be tailored to the local context, and barriers to participation should be addressed to increase the likelihood that ESHG will reach the poorest.

    There is a need for more rigorous quantitative studies of ESHG. This includes a more comprehensive and detailed description of program and training components, as well as studies to provide a greater understanding of the pathways or mechanisms through which ESHG increase empowerment.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies conducted between 1980 and January 2014.

  • Spanish

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Functional family therapy (FFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Authors Trine Filges, Ditte Andersen, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2015-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Functional family therapy (FFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
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  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.14
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Little evidence on the effectiveness of FFT as a treatment for non-opioid drug use for young people

    Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is used as a treatment for young peoples’ use of cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, or cocaine. There is very little evidence of its effectiveness, so it should be used with caution and subject to further evaluation.

    What did the review study?

    Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is a short-term, manual-based, intervention. It is delivered in outpatient settings and aims to modify interactions between family members to improve youth behavior. This review assesses the effectiveness of FFT as a treatment for young peoples’ use of cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, or cocaine.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effectiveness of FFT to reduce drug abuse (cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, or cocaine) among young people aged 11 to 21 years. The review includes two randomised controlled trials, but summarises findings from only one study reporting on the outcome of drug use.

    What studies are included?

    The review includes controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of FFT to reduce drug abuse among young people aged 11 to 21 years. Studies included in the review compare the effects of FFT on non-opioid drug use with no intervention, a waitlist condition or with alternative treatments.

    Two studies, reported in three papers, are included. Both were conducted in the U.S. Only one provides outcomes related to youth drug use. It compares the effectiveness of FFT with that of alternative treatments.

    What are the main results in this review?

    The results from the one study reporting on the effect of FFT on youth drug use shows a short-term (four month) reduction in the use of cannabis, an effect that disappears in the longer term.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    There is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of FFT for the treatment of non-opioid drug use in young people. It is impossible to draw conclusions and as such, FFT should be used with caution when targeting youth drug use. Agencies supporting FFT should build studies of effectiveness into their programmes.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until July 2013.

  • Spanish

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Community-based rehabilitation for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Valentina Iemmi, Lorna Gibson, Karl Blanchet, Suresh Kumar, Santosh Rath, Sally Hartley, GVS Murthy, Vikram Patel, Joerg Weber, Hannah Kuper
  • Published date 2015-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Community-based rehabilitation for people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.15
  • Records available in English, Hindi, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Positive effects from community-based rehabilitation for people with disabilities and their carers in low- and middle-income countries

    Community-based rehabilitation has a beneficial effect on the lives of people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries.

    What is the review about?

    People with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments. The World Health Organization endorses community-based rehabilitation interventions as the strategy for addressing the needs of people with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. There are an estimated one billion people with disabilities globally, of which 80% live in low- and middle-income countries.

    This Campbell systematic review looks at the evidence from different types of community- based rehabilitation interventions in low- and middle-income countries targeting different types of physical and mental disabilities, including stroke, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, schizophrenia, dementia and intellectual impairment.

    These interventions aim to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities and their carers, by meeting their basic needs and ensuring inclusion and participation using predominantly local resources. These interventions are composed of up to five components: health, education, livelihood, social and empowerment.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review looks at the evidence from different types of community- based rehabilitation interventions in low- and middle-income countries, which target different types of physical and mental disabilities. This review summarises findings from 15 studies, six which focus on physical disabilities and nine on mental disabilities.

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review cover a wide range of client populations, interventions and outcomes. The primary focus of 14 of the interventions is health, and one intervention is focused on education. Other components of community-based rehabilitation are a minor focus in some of the studies.

    Only one study concerned children. Most of the interventions targeted both people with disabilities and their carers, although most of the studies evaluated the effect of the intervention on the people with disabilities only. The majority of studies were undertaken in Asia, particularly in China. One study was from South Africa. The review highlights the need for studies from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    What were the main findings of the review?

    Moderate to high quality evidence shows that community- based rehabilitation has a positive impact on people with disabilities.

    Of six studies focusing on CBR for people with physical disabilities, three showed a beneficial effect of the intervention for stroke on a range of outcomes while one found a smaller effect; one study found a beneficial impact of CBR for arthritis; and one showed a positive impact of CBR for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The nine studies assessing the impact of CBR for people with mental disabilities showed a beneficial effect on schizophrenia (5 studies), dementia (3 studies) and intellectual disability (1 study).

    None of the studies that met the review’s inclusion criteria included economic evaluations of community-based rehabilitation.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    Each community-based rehabilitation programme is tailored to specific needs and settings. Furthermore, impact is measured in a variety of domains, including participation, quality of life and clinical outcomes. This means that establishing an evidence base for effectiveness of community- based rehabilitation is difficult.

    Economic evaluation, including cost effectiveness, is needed to understand whether resource allocation is appropriate given the challenges faced by low- and middle-income countries.

    To build stronger evidence, future studies will need to focus on broader client groups and include economic evaluations.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published between 1976 and 2012.

  • Spanish

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  • Hindi

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The effects of training, innovation and new technology on African smallholder farmers' economic outcomes and food security
  • Authors Ruth Stewart, Laurenz Langer, Natalie Rebelo Da Silva, Evans Muchiri, Hazel Zaranyika, Yvonne Erasmus, Nicola Randall, Shannon Rafferty, Marcel Korth, Nolizwe Madinga, Thea de Wet
  • Published date 2015-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title The effects of training, innovation and new technology on African smallholder farmers' economic outcomes and food security
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  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.16
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Training, innovation and technology interventions can improve livelihoods for smallholder farmers in Africa, but there are few rigorous studies

    Interventions that provide training or encourage adoption of new farming technology or practices show potential to improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Africa. For example, supporting farmers to grow orange-fleshed sweet potatoes - a variety of sweet potato high in vitamin A - appears to lead to improved nutrition status. However, few rigorous studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such interventions.

    What is this review about?

    Many poor people living in Africa depend on their small farms for survival. There has been a lot of interest in trying to reduce poverty in the region by supporting these farmers to produce more and make a profit from their farms. Such interventions include training farmers and introducing them to new farming techniques and products, such as new crop types or fertilisers.

    Although a substantial amount of money has been invested in these approaches by governments and international donors, the effects of these interventions on food security and economic outcomes are unclear. This review examines the effectiveness of training, innovation and new technology interventions on the economic outcomes and food security of smallholder farmers in Africa.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell Systematic Review examines the effects of training, innovation and new technology on the economic outcomes and food security of smallholder farmers in Africa. The review summarises 19 studies that used experimental or quasi-experimental methods.

    What studies are included?

    To be eligible for inclusion in this review studies were required to: a) be conducted in Africa; b) feature smallholder farmers as the target population; c) evaluate a training programme and/or facilitation of innovation and new technology; d) measure the effects of these interventions on economic outcomes or food security; and e) use experimental or quasi-experimental methods.

    The review includes 19 studies: five studies of training programmes and 14 studies of innovation and new technology. Most of the innovation studies assessed the effects of new agricultural inputs.

    What are the main findings of this review?

    What are the effects of innovation and technology on smallholder livelihoods?

    Interventions that provide smallholders with new biological or chemical inputs, such as fertiliser or crop varieties, improve farmers’ income and food security. In particular, introducing farmers to orange-fleshed sweet potato increases their nutritional status. Few high-quality studies have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions to change farming practices, although some evaluations suggest such interventions may increase farmers’ income in the short term.

    What are the effects of training on smallholder livelihoods?

    Interventions that provide smallholders with training may increase farmers’ income, but few high-quality studies are available to evaluate such interventions.

    How has this intervention worked?

    The positive effects of these interventions suggest that smallholder farmers in Africa are willing and able to participate in training and adopt new agricultural inputs.

    What do the findings of this review mean?

    Interest has grown in interventions to support smallholder farmers because such interventions have the potential to improve both household income and food security. This review confirms providing smallholders with new biological or chemical inputs, particularly orange-fleshed sweet potato, can lead to improved income and nutrition status. More high-quality studies are needed to assess other types of training, innovation, and new technology interventions. Research is also needed to assess whether such interventions have sustainable, long-term effects and whether they may cause harm to farmers or their communities.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published between 1990 and February 2015.

  • Spanish

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The impact of detention on the health of asylum seekers
  • Authors Trine Filges, Edith Montgomery, Marianne Kastrup, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen
  • Published date 2015-09-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title The impact of detention on the health of asylum seekers
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  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.13
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Detention of asylum seekers has adverse effects on mental health

    Confining asylum seekers in detention centres negatively affects their mental health both during their detention and after their release.

    What did the review study?

    The number of people fleeing conflicts and persecution is increasing. However, many countries use harsh measures to discourage people who wish to apply for asylum. One of the most controversial is confining asylum seekers in detention centres. The number of such centres is rising.

    Understanding the health impact of detaining asylum seekers is important. Asylum seekers have high rates of pre-migration trauma from exposure to war, genocide or imprisonment. These experiences make them vulnerable to health problems. Confining them may worsen the effects of the trauma they have experienced already.

    This Campbell systematic review assessed whether detaining asylum seekers has an impact on their mental health. The review also assessed whether detaining asylum seekers has a negative impact on their physical health and social functioning.

    About this review

    This Campbell systematic review examines the impacts of on health, including mental health (PTSD, anxiety and depression), physical health and social functioning, of confining asylum seekers in detention centres. The review includes nine studies from the UK, Japan, Canada, and Australia.

    What studies were included?

    Included studies compared asylum seekers who were detained with those who were not detained. A total of nine studies met the requirements for inclusion, which analysed 8 different asylum populations. The studies were conducted in four countries: the UK, Japan, Canada, and Australia. All the studies used non-randomised designs.

    Six of the studies were excluded from the analysis because there were important differences between the groups which were compared, or because the studies were judged to have methodological limitations. All of the excluded studies were conducted in Australia, which has a policy of mandatory detention.

    How does detention affect mental health?

    Detention has a negative impact on the mental health of asylum seekers. Levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety both before and after release were found to be higher among asylum seekers who were detained compared to those who were not detained. The size of the effects were clinically important.

    All the studies assessed the mental health of the participants but none reported outcomes related to physical or social functioning.

    What are the research and policy implications of this review?

    Implications for policy- and decision-makers

    Policymakers should consider less harmful policy options than detention. These options may include reporting requirements, sureties or bail, or community supervision. Options that restrict people’s freedom of movement should also be closely monitored to ensure that these do not also have negative mental health effects.

    Research implications

    The research summarized in the review is of moderate quality. Further research is needed to assess the impacts of keeping asylum seekers in detention centres on their physical health and social functioning. A deeper, comparative understanding of the impacts of different detention conditions on asylum seekers is also needed.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies between November 2013 and January 2014.

  • Norwegian

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  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse
  • Authors Kerryann Walsh, Karen Zwi, Sue Woolfenden, Aron Shlonsky
  • Published date 2015-05-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse
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  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.10
  • Records available in English, Hindi, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    School-based sexual abuse prevention programmes strengthen children’s protective behaviours and increase knowledge about sexual abuse

    School based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse – in the short term – can increase elementary students’ knowledge of sexual abuse and behaviours protecting them against this type of abuse.

    What did the review study?

    Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and its consequences. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny.

    This review assesses whether: programmes are effective in improving students’ protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. The review summarises findings from 24 trials, conducted in the USA, Canada, China, Germany, Taiwan and Turkey. Six meta-analyses are included assessing evidence of moderate quality. This study is an update to a previous review and covers publications up to September 2014.

    Which studies are included in this review?

    Only controlled studies - randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi RCTs – were included. Studies compared the school-based education programme with the standard school curriculum or no intervention.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Do school-based education programmes strengthen children’s protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse?

    School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse are more effective than alternative programmes or no programme at all in strengthening children’s knowledge about child sexual abuse prevention and their protective behaviours. Children retain the knowledge gained from programme participation, though no study has assessed retention over a period of longer than six months. No studies examined the retention of protective behaviours over time.

    Disclosures of previous and current occurrences of child sexual abuse increase for participants of school-based education programmes. However, the evidence supporting this finding is weak and should be interpreted with caution.

    Are there any adverse effects from school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse?

    School-based education programmes do not cause fear or anxiety among child participants. Parental anxiety or fear was not measured in any of the studies.

    What was the quality of the evidence?

    The quality of the evidence of studies included in this review is moderate due to risk of bias detected for several studies, imprecise data reporting and – for studies using a cluster-randomised design – insufficient data reported for accurate analysis.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse are a valid approach to strengthen the knowledge about child sexual abuse, and the protective behaviours of children in primary schools. The review did not assess whether these programs actually prevent child sexual abuse.

    Further research is needed to more rigorously evaluate existing programmes, their content, methods, and delivery, including the use of web-based or online programmes. This research should also explore the potential relation between program participation and actual prevention of child sexual abuse.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until September 2014.

  • Spanish

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  • Hindi

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Psychosocial interventions for school refusal with primary and secondary school students
  • Authors Brandy R. Maynard, Kristen Brendel, Jeffrey J. Bulanda, David Heyne, Aaron Thompson, Terri Pigott
  • Published date 2015-05-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Education
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Psychosocial interventions for school refusal with primary and secondary school students
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.12
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Effects of psychosocial interventions for school refusal with primary and secondary students

    Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for students with severe emotional distress increases school attendance but has no effect on anxiety.

    What is this review about?

    Students who have difficulty in attending school due to emotional distress may display school refusal. Unlike truancy, school refusal is a result of students’ fear, anxiety or depression. The review summarises studies of psychosocial interventions. These interventions are primarily behavioural therapy, involving relaxation or social skills training, or cognitive behavioural therapy.

    This review assessed whether psychosocial interventions for school refusal reduce anxiety and increase attendance.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of psychosocial interventions for school refusal. The review summarizes the findings from eight studies.

    What studies are included?

    Eight studies, covering 435 school age participants with school refusal, are summarised in this review.

    The review included rigorous evaluations published between January 1980 and November 2013. Studies, which assessed effects of medications only, or studies conducted in residential treatment centres, were not included. All but one study assessed the effects of a variant of cognitive behavioural therapy, and most took place in a clinic setting.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Medium quality evidence shows that cognitive- behavioural therapy (CBT) increases school attendance but has no effect on anxiety.

    The effect of the psychosocial interventions on anxiety was not statistically significant. The effects on attendance were significant.

    Several risks of bias were present in most studies included in the review, which could upwardly bias the estimated effects. Many included studies did not clearly describe how they randomly assigned participants to treatment or control groups. Therefore, the current estimate of treatment effects from the eight rigorous studies should be treated with caution.

    What do the results mean?

    School is an important part of young people’s development. So it is important to address school refusal to ensure that all students engage with school appropriately. The most commonly studied interventions for school refusal are behavioural approaches and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). The goal of these programs is to reduce the young person’s anxiety and increase attendance.

    The evidence provides tentative support for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of school refusal. But there is an overall lack of rigorous studies to draw a firm conclusion. Future studies should have larger sample sizes and pay attention to potential biases. Studies should also consider other types of interventions for rigorous evaluation. Assessing long-term effects may provide additional insights for the mixed findings of the effects of interventions on attendance and anxiety.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    This review started in November 2013, and was published in May 2015.

  • Norwegian

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  • Spanish

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Food supplementation for improving the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged three months to five years
  • Authors Elizabeth Kristjansson, Damian K Francis, Selma Liberato, Maria Benkhalti Jandu, Vivian Andrea Welch, Malek Batal, Trisha Greenhalgh, Tamara Rader, Eamonn Noonan, Beverley J. Shea, Laura Janzen, George A. Wells, Mark Petticrew
  • Published date 2015-05-04
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development, Nutrition, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Food supplementation for improving the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged three months to five years
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.11
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Food supplementation is more effective if better targeted and supervised

    Supplementary food has a small effect on nutritional outcomes. It is more effective for younger and poorer children, when provided in day-care or feeding centres than as take home rations, when the supplemental food provides higher energy and when there is stricter program supervision. There is a positive effect on psychomotor development, but no clear evidence of an effect on cognitive development.

    What did the review study?

    Undernutrition is a severe problem, especially low and middle-income countries, where it contributes to the death of a million children each year. It also increases the risks of lowered cognitive functioning, poor school performance and poor health. Supplementary feeding programs aim to close the energy gap from poor nutrition. They provide additional food or beverages with a high energy level to be consumed alongside regular meals.

    This review examines whether food supplementation is effective in improving the health of disadvantaged children aged 3 months to 5 years, and examines the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of food supplementation programs.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines whether food supplementation is effective in improving the health of disadvantaged children under 5. The review summarizes findings from 32 studies: 21 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and 11 controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs).

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare the effects of supplementary food on children’s physical and psychosocial health to no-feeding or a placebo. Feeding programs could be implemented through day-care, feeding centres, or in the home, though those in a hospital setting were excluded.

    The review includes 32 studies, 21 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 11 controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs). The majority of the included studies (29) are conducted in low- and middle-income countries.

    What were the main findings of the review?

    Is supplementary food effective in improving the health of disadvantaged children under five?

    Supplementary feeding for young, disadvantaged children has small effects on children’s weight and growth in low- and middle-income countries. Children who are younger, and poorer or more undernourished grow more in response to supplementary feeding.

    More leakage occurs from take home rations. Therefore, food supplementation programs implemented through day care centres seem to be more effective, as are those with stricter supervision.

    Both single and multiple interventions were effective for weight gain in children but the effect size for multiple interventions was higher. The effect is also higher for higher energy meals.

    There is a positive effect on psychomotor development, which is development of skills that require both mental and muscular activity (such as crawling, walking, talking). However, there was no clear evidence of an effect on cognitive development.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Targeting and strict supervision may increase the effectiveness of food supplementation programs.

    The supplement should contain at least 30 per cent of the recommended daily intake. Consideration should also be given to providing rations for other family members to avoid leakage.

    There is a need to fund additional trials to examine the impact of supplementary feeding on the psychosocial development of young, disadvantaged children. More research is also needed on the implementation of high-quality interventions and large-scale programmes for supplementary feeding.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies until January 2014.

  • Spanish

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Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health
  • Authors Jane Barlow, Cathy Bennett, Nick Midgley, Soili Larkin, Yinghui Wei
  • Published date 2015-03-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.6
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Parent-infant psychotherapy for high-risk mothers may be better than no treatment, but no better than alternative treatments

    Parent-infant Psychotherapy (PIP) for parents experiencing adversity, may improve the attachment of infants compared to no treatment, but there is no evidence that PIP has an impact on any other outcomes (e.g. parental mental health). PIP does not appear to be more effective than alternative treatments in improving maternal or infant mental health.

    What did the review study?

    Parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP) aims to address infant problems such as emotional, behavioural, eating and sleeping disorders. It also aims to address problems in the parents’ relationship with an infant, such as bonding difficulties or low sensitivity. It targets the relationship between the infant and his or her parent, and psychotherapists using this psychodynamic approach deliver it jointly to both the parent and the infant, typically in weekly meetings over the course of five to twenty weeks.

    This review examines if using PIP with mothers experiencing adversity is effective in improving maternal and infant mental health and the mother-infant relationship. The review also assesses the effectiveness of PIP for a mother’s ability to care for her baby, and for infant stress and development.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review compares the effectiveness of Parent-Infant Psychotherapy (PIP) in improving the mental health of parents, the parent-infant relationship and infant emotional wellbeing with that of no treatment, treatment as usual and alternative treatments. The review summarises findings from eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with a total of 846 participants.

    What studies are included?

    The studies included in this review compare the effects of PIP programmes with a control group that received no treatment, treatment-as-usual, or an alternative treatment, such as interaction guidance, psychoeducation, counselling or cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Eight randomised controlled trials studies are included, with a total of 846 parents with infants aged up to 2 years. Four studies compare PIP to no treatment or treatment-as-usual, and four to alternative treatments. Three of these studies were conducted in the USA, and one each in Canada, Switzerland and Sweden.The included studies were based on samples that included mothers only, all of whom experienced mental health problems, domestic abuse or substance dependency, and some of whom were also in prison.

    Is PIP effective for high-risk populations?

    Compared with no treatment or treatment-as-usual, PIP participants show an increase in the number of infants securely attached; fewer infants with an avoidant or disorganised attachment style; and more infants moving from insecure to secure attachment. This was maintained at follow up.

    PIP is neither more nor less effective than no treatment or treatment-as-usual in improving maternal mental health, and reflective functioning; infant stress and development; or the quality of the mother-infant interaction.

    Does PIP have any adverse effects?

    Few adverse effects were identified in the included studies. One study showed that infants whose mothers received PIP stayed in the same attachment category or showed a less secure attachment.

    What was the quality of the evidence?

    The quality of the evidence of studies included in this review is weak. Only a few studies were included and these were based on small sample sizes, and several methodological biases were detected. Results, should therefore, be interpreted with caution.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    PIP is a potentially effective method of improving the attachment status of infants of mothers experiencing adversity, but there is no evidence to support its use to improve other aspects of the relationship or parental functioning, nor to support the use of PIP over other treatment approaches. This evidence should be treated with caution due to methodological problems.

    Further high-quality and rigorous research is needed to assess the effectiveness of PIP compared with other models, such as interaction guidance. Further research is also needed to establish the impact of PIP on other potentially important outcomes such as parental mental health and reflective functioning.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until January 2014.

  • Norwegian

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Norwegian.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Authors Trine Filges, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, Ditte Andersen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen
  • Published date 2015-03-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for young people in treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.8
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