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Search Result: 30 Records found
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Cognitive-behavioural therapies for young people in outpatient treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Authors Trine Filges, Anne-Sofie Due Knudsen, Majken Mosegaard Svendsen, Krystyna Kowalski, Lars Benjaminsen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Cognitive-behavioural therapies for young people in outpatient treatment for non-opioid drug use
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.3
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Cognitive-behavioural therapies to treat non-opioid drug use in young people is no better or worse than other treatments

    Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is no better – or worse – in reducing youth’s drug use than other interventions when used in outpatient settings.

    What did the review study?

    Youth’s use of non-opioid drugs such as cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy or cocaine is a severe problem worldwide. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is widely used as a substance abuse treatment with young people. CBT aims to reduce the drug use of adolescents by improving their skills to problem solve, cope with stress and by enhancing their self confidence to resist opportunities to use drugs.

    This review looks at whether CBT is better at reducing the use of non-opioid drugs among young people aged 13-21 than other treatments provided to adolescents in outpatient settings.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) when used in outpatient settings to reduce drug use (of e.g. cannabis, amphetamines,

    ecstasy, or cocaine) among young people aged 13-21. The review summarizes findings from seven studies, all of which were

    randomised controlled trials.

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare the effects of CBT on youth’s abstinence, drug use and other outcomes with a broad range of other, mostly therapy-based, treatments. CBT interventions are included which are delivered by professionals to clients individually or in groups in outpatient settings. They may have additional components, such as motivational interviewing, but CBT was the primary intervention.

    Seven unique studies are included, reported in 17 papers. All seven studies are randomised controlled trials, six of which were conducted in the US, and one in the Netherlands. Together, the studies involve 953 study participants.

    Is CBT more or less effective than other treatments used in outpatient settings to reduce the use of non-opioid drugs among adolescents aged 13-21?

    CBT is no better than other treatments in ensuring total abstinence from non-opioid drugs or in reducing their use among adolescents who are in substance abuse treatment in an outpatient setting. This overall result is the same no matter if CBT is used with an additional component of motivational interviewing or not. There are also no better effects from CBT on other outcomes such as youth’s social functioning, school problems, criminal activity and treatment retention.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    CBT is not any better at reducing the use of non-opioid drugs among adolescents than other treatments when used in outpatient settings.

    The review is based on only a small number of studies, several of which show weaknesses and flaws in their methodology. There is a need to fund additional trials of CBT interventions, based on rigorous study designs and with a potential to add to the global CBT evidence base. The majority of included CBT studies were conducted in the U.S. The findings of this review may therefore only have limited applicability in other social and cultural settings. Future trials of CBT interventions should be conducted in a broader range of countries.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies until September 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • Authors Sean Grant, Amanda Parsons, Jennifer Burton, Paul Montgomery, Kristen Underhill, Evan Mayo-Wilson
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Home visits for prevention of impairment and death in older adults
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.3
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Home visits appear not to be effective, but better evidence may show some benefits for some groups from some interventions

    Home visits by health and social care professionals aim to prevent cognitive and functional impairment in older adults, thus reducing institutionalisation and prolonging life. Overall, home visits do not achieve these aims. Higher quality evidence is needed to determine how and for whom home visits may be effective.

    What did the review study?

    Home visits by health and social care professionals are a preventive intervention targeted primarily towards older adults. Their main aim is to maintain the health and autonomy of community-dwelling older adults. This type of preventive intervention involves strategies to reduce a variety of risk factors older adults face for morbidity and mortality relating to physical, functional, psychological, environmental and social issues.

    This review examines the effectiveness of home visits in reducing impairment, institutionalization, and death in older adults. Factors that may moderate effects are identified.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effectiveness of home visits in preventing impairment, institutionalization, and death in older adults, as well as identifying factors that may moderate effects. The review summarises findings from 64 studies.

    Fourteen of the studies were undertaken in Great Britain, and the USA each, 11 in Canada, 5 in the Netherlands, 3 in Japan, 4 in Australia and New Zealand each, 2 each in Denmark, Taiwan, and Sweden, and 1 each in Switzerland, Finland and Italy.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies are randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of visits by health or social care professionals (not directly related to recent hospital discharge) for persons aged 65 years and above who are living at home. Less than 50% of the study population had to be without dementia.

    A total of 64 studies with 28,642 participants were included. All studies are from developed countries, with the largest number from the USA and the UK, with 14 studies each.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall home visits are not effective in maintaining the health and autonomy of community-dwelling older adults. Preventive home visits did not reduce absolute mortality, and did not have a significant overall effect on the number of people who were institutionalised.

    There is high quality evidence of no effect on falls from interventions targeting fall prevention. There is low quality evidence of small statistically significant positive effects for functioning and quality of life.

    It is possible that some programmes have modest effects on institutionalisation and hospitalisation. However, heterogeneity in target population and intervention design, as well as poor reporting of in studies of design, implementation and the control condition make this difficult to determine.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Home visits for community-dwelling older adults do not significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. Estimates of treatment effects were statistically precise. So further small studies of multi-component interventions compared with usual care would be unlikely to change the conclusion.

    However, there is a possibility that there may be beneficial effects of some interventions for some populations. Poor reporting of how interventions and comparisons were implemented means these cannot be identified in this review. If researchers continue evaluations on these types of interventions, a clear theory of change describing the programme theory of change and implementation is needed, and all measured outcomes must be reported.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until December 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Authors Marc Winokur, Amy Holtan, Keri Batchelder
  • Published date 2014-03-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Kinship care for the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from the home for maltreatment
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.2
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish, French
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    The health and well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children in foster care

    The behavioural and mental health, and the well-being of children placed in kinship care is better than that of children placed in foster care. Children in kinship care experience fewer placement disruptions and incidents of institutional abuse. The likelihood that guardianship is awarded to relatives is higher for children in kinship care compared to foster care.

    There are no differences between kinship and foster care for the rates of reunification with birth parents, the length of stay in placement, children’s educational attainment, the strength of family relations or the degree to which developmental and physician services are utilised. However, children in foster care are more likely to utilise mental health services and to be adopted, which removes any involvement of their birth parents in their upbringing.

    What did the review study?

    Kinship care - the placement of children with a family related to the child - is increasingly utilised in many Western countries as an alternative to placing children who have been maltreated in residential settings or with unrelated foster families.

    This review examines the effect of kinship care compared to foster care on the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from their home for maltreatment. Outcomes include children’s behavioural health, mental health, placement stability and permanency, educational attainment, family relations, service utilisation, and re-abuse.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines whether kinship care is more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and wellbeing of children removed from their home for maltreatment. The review summarizes findings from 102 studies involving 666,615 children. 71 of these studies were included in meta-analyses.

    What studies are included?

    Studies included in this review compare data on the safety, permanency and well-being of children placed in kinship care with data for children placed in foster care.

    The review includes 102 studies, all of which were controlled experimental or quasi-experimental studies: 89 of were conducted in the USA, and the remainder in Spain, the Netherlands, Norway, Ireland, UK, Israel, Sweden and Australia.

    Is kinship care more effective than foster care in ensuring the safety, permanency and well-being of children removed from their home for maltreatment?

    Children in kinship care have better behavioural and mental health than children in foster care, i.e. fewer internalising and externalising behaviours, better adaptive behaviours, fewer psychiatric disorders and better emotional health. They also experience greater stability and permanency in their placement and suffer from less institutional abuse than children in foster care. Also, the chance of relatives being awarded guardianship is greater for children in kinship care than for those in foster care.

    Children in foster care are more likely to be adopted than children in kinship care, and they utilise mental health services to a greater degree than children in kinship care.

    No differences between children in kinship and in foster care are found for the utilisation of other public services than mental health services (i.e. developmental services, or physician services), or for educational attainment, the rate of reunification with birth parents, or for the strength of their relations and attachment to their family.

    Some of the findings are context specific, notably the lesser support which may be given to kinship carers compared to foster carers, and whether permanency of the kinship or foster arrangement, adoption or reunification is the preferred end goal.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Kinship care is a viable option for the children that need to be removed from the home for maltreatment. However, policy issues remain to balance the cost-effectiveness of kinship care with a possible need for increased levels of caseworker involvement and service delivery.

    A considerable number of the included studies showed weaknesses in their methodologies and designs. There is a need to conduct more high quality quantitative studies of the effects of kinship care based on robust longitudinal designs and psychometrically sound instruments.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    This review includes studies published between March 2007 and March 2011.

  • Norwegian

    OPPSUMMERT FORSKNING

    Barn som er plassert i slektsfosterhjem har bedre helse og velferd enn barn plassert i ordinære fosterhjem

    Slektsfosterhjem er en fosterhjemsplassering der barnet plasseres til oppfostring i egen slekt eller familie. Barn som er plassert i slektsfosterhjem, har bedre mental helse- og mindre atferdsproblemer enn barn plassert i ordinære fosterhjem. Barn i slektsfosterhjem opplever færre flyttinger og mindre institusjonelt mishandling (av ansatte i systemet). Sannsynligheten for at formynderskapet gis til slektninger er større for barn i slektsfosterhjem enn barn i ordinære fosterhjem.

    På en del utfall finner man ingen forskjell mellom barn i slektsfosterhjem og barn i ordinære fosterhjem. Dette gjelder for eksempel hvorvidt barna blir gjenforent med sine biologiske foreldre, lengden på oppholdet i plassering, barnas skoleprestasjoner, hvor sterke biologiske familierelasjonene er, eller i hvilken grad utviklings- eller legetjenester brukes. Barn i ordinære fosterhjem har imidlertid større sannsynlighet for å ta i bruk psykolog- eller psykiatritjenester og for å bli adoptert. Det siste utelukker som regel de biologiske foreldrenes involvering i barnas liv.

    Hva undersøkte oversikten?

    Plassering av barn i slektsfosterhjem brukes i økende grad i mange vestlige land som et alternativ til å plassere barn som har blitt mishandlet, på institusjon eller hos fosterfamilier uten slektstilknytning.

    Denne oversikten undersøker effekten av barns oppvekst i slektsfosterhjem sammenlignet med ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder å ivareta barnas trygghet, stabilitet i hjemmet og generell velferd for barn som har blitt tatt bort fra hjemmet sitt på grunn av mishandling. Utfallene omfatter barnas atferdsmessige helse, mentale helse, plasseringsstabilitet, skoleprestasjoner, familierelasjoner, tjenestebruk og ny mishandling.

    Hva er formålet med denne oversikten?

    Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell undersøker hvorvidt slektsfosterhjem er bedre enn ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder å ivareta trygghet og velferd, samt sikre plassering for barn som tas bort fra hjemmet på grunn av mishandling. Oversikten oppsummerer funn fra 102 studier med totalt 666 615 barn. 71 av disse studiene ble inkludert i metaanalyser.

    Hvilke studier er inkludert?

    Studier inkludert i denne oversikten målte effekt av tiltakene på trygghet, sannsynlighet for varig plassering og velferd hos barn. Oversikten inkluderer 102 studier – og alle var kontrollerte eksperimentelle eller kvasieksperimentelle studier: 89 av dem ble gjennomført i USA, og resten ble gjennomført i Spania, Nederland, Norge, Irland, Storbritannia, Israel, Sverige og Australia.

    Er slektsfosterhjem mer effektivt enn ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder å ivareta trygghet, velvære og plasseringsstabilitet for barn som har blitt tatt bort fra hjemmet på grunn av mishandling?

    Barn i slektsfosterhjem har bedre atferdsmessig og mental helse enn barn i ordinære fosterhjem, det vil si mindre internaliserende og eksternaliserende atferd, bedre adaptiv atferd, færre psykiske lidelser og bedre emosjonell helse. De opplever også mer stabilitet i plasseringen og er sjeldnere utsatt for institusjonell mishandling enn barn i ordinære fosterhjem. Sjansen for at slektninger blir gitt formynderskapet, er også større for barn i slektsfosterhjem enn for dem i ordinære fosterhjem.

    Barn i ordinære fosterhjem har større sannsynlighet for å bli adoptert enn barn i slektsfosterhjem, og de bruker psykolog- og psykiatritjenester i større grad enn barn i slektsfosterhjem.

    Det er ikke funnet noen forskjeller mellom barn i slektsfosterhjem og barn i ordinære fosterhjem når det gjelder bruken av andre offentlige tjenester, som fastlege eller lignende, eller når det gjelder skoleprestasjoner, hvorvidt de blir gjenforent med sine biologiske foreldre eller styrken på familierelasjonene og familietilknytningen.

    Noen av funnene er kontekstspesifikke, for eksempel at omsorgsgivere i slektsfosterhjem gjerne får mindre støtte enn omsorgsgivere i ordinære fosterhjem. Det var også forskjeller mellom studiene om hvorvidt permanent plassering i slektsfosterhjemmet eller det ordinære fosterhjemmet, adopsjon eller gjenforening var det foretrukne målet.

    Hva innebærer funnene i denne oversikten?

    Slektsfosterhjem fremstår som et godt alternativ for barna som må tas bort fra hjemmet på grunn av mishandling. Det gjenstår imidlertid politiske utfordringer for å balansere kostnadseffektiviteten ved slektsfosterhjem med et potensielt behov for å involvere flere saksbehandlere og bruk av flere tjenester.

    Mange av de inkluderte studiene hadde svakheter med hensyn til design og risiko for systematiske feil. Det er behov for flere kvantitative studier av høy kvalitet og som følger opp barna over tid. Slike studier bør benytte seg av validerte instrumenter for å måle relevante utfall.

    Hvor oppdatert er denne oversikten?

    Denne oversikten inkluderer studier publisert mellom mars 2007 og mars 2011. Oversikten ble publisert 3. mars 2014.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

  • French

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in French.

Unemployment benefit exhaustion: incentive effects on job-finding rates
  • Authors Trine Filges, Lars Pico Geerdsen, Anne-Sofie Due Knudsen, Anne-Marie Klint Jorgensen, Krystyna Kowalski
  • Published date 2013-03-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Unemployment benefit exhaustion: incentive effects on job-finding rates
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2013.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Exhaustion of unemployment benefits leads to an increase in job-finding rates among the unemployed

    There is evidence that the exhaustion of unemployment benefits encourages unemployed individuals to find work.

    What did the review study?

    Since the 1970s unemployment rates in Europe and the USA have diverged, with unemployment persistently higher in the USA. The generosity of the benefits system is one possible factor behind this difference.

    Shortening the length of unemployment benefit eligibility period is a policy instrument intended to decrease unemployment. The policy is intended to encourage productive job searches and reduce the overall unemployment level.

    This review assesses the impact of exhaustion of employment benefits on the job-finding rate for unemployed individuals.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the impact of exhaustion of employment benefits on the job-finding rate for unemployed individuals. The review summarises findings from 47 studies. The majority of studies were conducted in Europe, with just two of the studies taking place in the USA and one in Canada. Participants were unemployed individuals receiving any form of time-limited benefit during their period of being unemployed.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies tested unemployed individuals’ exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. The studies tested the exit rate from the re-employment job as a secondary outcome. Non-randomized studies as well as study designs that used a well-defined control group, i.e. unemployed persons whose benefit expiration was not immediate, were also included.

    Whilst 47 studies were identified, after allowing for study quality and data issues, only 12 studies are included in the meta-analysis. The countries represented in the meta-analysis include Canada, USA, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, Germany, Czech Republic, Austria, and Poland.The participants were unemployed individuals who received some sort of time-limited benefit during their period of unemployment.

    What are the main results in this review?

    The exhaustion of unemployment benefits encourages unemployed individuals to find work. The exhaustion of benefits results in an increase of about 80% in the exit rate from unemployment to employment. The effect starts to occur approximately two months before benefits expire, increasing as the expiration date approaches. There was no significant effect observed prior to the two months before benefits expire.

    There was insufficient evidence to address the secondary outcome of whether the prospect of benefit exhaustion has an impact on the exit rate from the re-employment job, i.e. workers soon leave the new job and return to benefits. Thus, the evidence that exhaustion of unemployment benefits reduces overall unemployment level is inconclusive.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Exhaustion of unemployment benefits leads to an increase in job-finding rates among the unemployed but only shortly prior to exhaustion and at the time of exhaustion.

    The hypothesis that shortening the benefit eligibility period may increase productive job searches has been confirmed. However, only a small number of studies provide data for re-employment exit rates so additional research is needed to assess the overall effect on unemployment.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until March 2011. This Campbell systematic review was published in March 2013.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Workplace-based disability management programs for promoting return-to-work
  • Authors Ulrik Gensby, Thomas Lund, Krystyna Kowalski, Madina Saidj, Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen, Trine Filges, Emma Irvin, Benjamin C. Amick III, Merete Labriola
  • Published date 2012-11-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Workplace-based disability management programs for promoting return-to-work
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.17
  • Records available in English, Spanish
Interventions to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting in African countries
  • Authors Rigmor C. Berg, Eva Denison
  • Published date 2012-06-28
  • Coordinating group(s) International Development, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Interventions to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting in African countries
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.9
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Interventions to reduce female genital mutilation/cutting affect attitudes, not practices

    Girls exposed to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) are at risk of both immediate adverse physical consequences as well as long-term health consequences. The assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the prevalence of FGM/C is hampered by a lack of rigorous evidence.

    What did the review study?

    Female genital mutilation/cutting is a traditional practice that involves the partial or total removal or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is mainly rooted in religio-social beliefs and carried out mainly in 28 countries in Africa on prepubescent girls.

    FGM/C interventions aim to reduce the occurrence of FGM/C among practicing communities. This review examines the empirical research on the effectiveness of FGM/C interventions. The review also examines the contextual factors that may help explain the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such interventions.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the empirical research on the effectiveness of FGM/C interventions to reduce the occurrence of FGM/C practices. The review also examines the empirical research on contextual factors that may help explain the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such interventions. It summarises findings from 8 effectiveness studies and 27 context studies conducted in seven different African countries: Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia/Kenya, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies reported on any interventions aimed at preventing, or reducing the prevalence of FGM/C with girls and/or young women at risk of FGM/C. Studies reporting interventions targeting members of communities practicing FGM/C such as religious leaders and traditional circumcisers as participants were also included. Effectiveness studies had to employ a controlled before-and-after study design.

    The studies were conducted in Burkina Faso, Egypt, Ethiopia, Somalia/Kenya, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal.

    The context studies adopted both qualitative and cross sectional quantitative study designs. A total of eight effectiveness studies and 27 context studies with 7,042 participants were included in the review.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Interventions to encourage the abandonment of FGM/C have positive effects on attitudes, but limited effects were found on the practice of FGM/C itself. The limited effects may be due to weak program intensity, implementation problems, and an insufficient number of study participant to detect changes.

    The main factors that supported FGM/C were tradition, religion, and reduction of women’s sexual desire. The main factors that hindered FGM/C were medical complications and prevention of sexual satisfaction.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    The eight effectiveness studies which were included in the review had low methodological quality. But while there is doubt as to the validity of the findings, the results point to changes in attitudes. Thus, there is a need to conduct methodologically rigorous evaluations of effectiveness.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until March 2011. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in June 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

Home-based child development interventions for pre-school children from socially-disadvantaged families
  • Authors Sarah Miller, Lisa K. Maguire, Geraldine Macdonald
  • Published date 2012-01-03
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Home-based child development interventions for pre-school children from socially-disadvantaged families
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2012.1
  • Records available in English, Norwegian, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Home-based interventions do not improve child development outcomes for preschool children from socially disadvantaged families

    The early years of a child’s life are crucial for their development. Home-based child development interventions aim to boost children’s developmental outcomes and reduce the negative consequences of deprivation through educating, training and providing support for parents. This review finds no impact on children’s developmental outcomes, however the evidence for this is weak and more studies are needed.

    What did the review study?

    Young children from a deprived family background are more susceptible to developmental problems and poor health. The aim of home-based interventions is to assist parents in providing a better quality home environment for their children, to prevent or mitigate these adverse outcomes.

    This review examines the effectiveness of home-based interventions aimed primarily at improving developmental outcomes for preschool children from socially disadvantaged families.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review assesses the effectiveness of home-based child development interventions in improving children’s developmental outcomes. The review summarises findings from 7 studies. Two of the studies were undertaken in the United States each, 1 in Canada, 1 in Jamaica, 1 in Ireland, 1 in an unreported location and 1 in Bermuda.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies are randomized controlled trials comparing home-based preschool child development interventions with a ‘standard care’ control, such as primary healthcare services. Outcomes are effects on the development of preschool children including cognition (thinking skills) and social and emotional development.

    Participants were parents with children up to the age of school entry who were socially disadvantaged, for example: living in poverty, a lone parent or from an ethnic minority background. A total of seven studies with 723 participants were included.

    What are the main results in this review?

    The nature of the evidence makes it difficult to assess the impact on child cognitive development. Evidence synthesis of four of the seven studies finds no effect. But evidence from the other three studies cannot be combined, so the overall finding is inconclusive. Adverse outcomes for parents (for example, disempowerment) were not reported in any of the seven studies, so no conclusion can be reached.

    The evidence did not allow conclusions to be reached for secondary outcomes such as child physical development and parenting behaviour.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Evidence from four studies finds that home-based child development interventions have no impact on the cognitive development of preschool children from socially disadvantaged families. It was not possible to synthesize the evidence for socio-emotional outcomes.

    However, of the seven included studies, the most recent is from 1989. There was insufficient evidence to judge the quality of most of the studies. Further studies are needed, which should endeavour to better document and report their methodological processes.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until October 2010. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in January 2012.

  • Norwegian

    OPPSUMMERT FORSKNING

    Hjemmebaserte tiltak bedrer ikke utviklingsutfall for førskolebarn fra sosialt svakerestilte familier

    De tidlige årene i et barns liv er svært viktige med tanke på barnets utvikling. Hjemmebaserte tiltak for å bedre førskolebarn fra sosialt svakerestilte vilkår for god utvikling omfatter utdanning, opplæring og tilbud om hjelp til foreldrene. Denne oversikten finner ingen innvirkning på utfall knyttet til barns utvikling. Det finnes imidlertid for lite kunnskap om dette, og flere studier trengs.

    Hva undersøkte oversikten?

    Små barn fra sosialt svakerestilte familier har større sannsynlighet enn andre barn for å få problemer med utvikling og dårlig helse. Formålet med hjemmebaserte tiltak er å hjelpe foreldrene med å skape et godt hjemmemiljø for barna for å forhindre eller begrense disse negative utfallene.

    Denne oversikten undersøker hvor effektivt hjemmebaserte tiltak er når det gjelder å bedre utfall knyttet til utvikling for førskolebarn fra svakerestilte familier.

    Hva er formålet med denne oversikten?

    Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell undersøker hvor effektive hjemmebaserte tiltak rettet mot barns utvikling er når det gjelder å bedre utfall knyttet til utvikling hos barn. Oversikten oppsummerer funn fra sju studier. To av studiene ble gjennomført i USA, én i Canada, én i Jamaica, én i Irland, én på et ukjent sted og én i Bermuda.

    Hvilke studier er inkludert?

    Den systematiske oversikten inkluderer randomiserte, kontrollerte studier som sammenligner hjemmebaserte tiltak for å fremme førskolebarns utvikling med standard tjenestetilbud (slik som primærhelsetjenester). Utfallene som ble målt var utvikling hos førskolebarn deriblant kognisjon (tankeevner) samt sosial og emosjonell utvikling.

    Deltakerne var foreldre med barn i opptil skolealder som var sosialt svakerestilte, for eksempel som levde i fattigdom, som hadde bare én forelder, eller som hadde minoritetsbakgrunn. Totalt sju studier med 723 deltakere var inkludert.

    Hva er de viktigste resultatene i denne oversikten?

    Effektene på barns kognitive utvikling var usikker, og en sammenstilling av resultatene basert på fire av de sju studiene fant ingen effekt. Men resultatene fra de andre tre studiene kan ikke kombineres, så alt i alt er funnet ufullstendig. Negative utfall for foreldrene (for eksempel umyndiggjøring) ble ikke rapportert i noen av de sju studiene, så her er også effektene av familiebaserte tiltak usikker.

    Det var heller ikke mulig å trekke noen konklusjoner om sekundære utfall, som barnas fysiske utvikling eller barneoppdragelsen.

    Hva innebærer funnene i denne oversikten?

    Resultater fra fire studier tyder på at det er ingen forskjell mellom tiltakene på den kognitive utviklingen til førskolebarn fra sosialt svakerestilte familier. Det var ikke mulig å slå sammen resultatene for sosioemosjonelle utfall.

    Den nyeste studien av de sju inkluderte er fra 1989. Det var utilstrekkelig med resultater til å kunne bedømme kvaliteten på flesteparten av studiene. Det er behov for flere studier, og disse bør ha som mål å dokumentere og rapportere de metodologiske fremgangsmåtene bedre.

    Hvor oppdatert er denne oversikten?

    Forfatterne søkte etter studier som ble publisert frem til oktober 2010. Denne systematiske oversikten fra Campbell ble publisert i januar 2012.

  • Spanish

    Click on 'Download PDF' on the right to view the plain language summary in Spanish.

The effects of teachers' classroom management practices on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour
  • Authors Regina Oliver, Daniel Reschly, Joseph Wehby
  • Published date 2011-06-24
  • Coordinating group(s) Education, Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title The effects of teachers' classroom management practices on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2011.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Effective classroom management seems to improve student behaviour in the classroom but further research is needed

    Disruptive behaviour by students affects academic performance as students in disrupted classrooms have less engaged academic time. Effective classroom management - preventive procedures which give students specific, appropriate behaviours to engage in - improves student behaviour.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effect of teacher classroom management practices on disruptive or aggressive student behaviour and which management practice is most effective. The review summarises findings from 12 studies conducted in public school general education classrooms in the United States and Netherlands. Participants included students from Kindergarten through 12th grade.

    What did the review study?

    Disruptive behaviour by students in the classroom is commonly associated with poor academic performance. Teaching time is often wasted trying to control disruptive behaviours.

    Effective classroom management is a preventive approach which establishes a positive classroom environment in which the teacher focuses on students who behave appropriately. This review studies the effect of these management practices on disruptive behaviours, and which of the components of the management practices is most effective.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies reported on public school general education classrooms with students in Kindergarten through 12th grade as participants. Effectiveness studies had to use a valid experimental or quasi-experimental design with control groups.

    The studies were conducted in the United States and The Netherlands.

    A total of 12 studies were included in the systematic review. The studies did not include a breakdown of results by individual grade, which prevented an analysis by grade. Seven of the 12 studies were from the same research group and assessed the efficacy of the researcher’s own programme.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Overall, teachers’ classroom management practices have a significant positive effect in decreasing aggressive or problematic behaviour in the classroom. Students in the treatment classrooms in all 12 studies reviewed showed less disruptive or problematic behaviours when compared to the students in control classrooms without the intervention.

    It is not possible to make any conclusions regarding what component of the management practices is most effective due to small sample size and lack of information reported in the studies reviewed.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    Individual classroom management practices, classroom organisation and behaviour management appears to be an effective classroom practice. However, due to the small sample size of the studies, a definite conclusion about effectiveness is premature. And the lack of rigorous evaluations of classroom management practices means it is not possible to draw any conclusions about which practices are most effective in reducing disruptive behaviours in the classroom. More independent research is needed on the effectiveness of classroom management practices in order to determine the best management practices.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until June 2011. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in June 2011.

  • Spanish

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Interventions intended to reduce pregnancy-related outcomes among adolescents
  • Authors Lauren S. Scher, Rebecca A. Maynard, Matthew Stagner
  • Published date 2006-12-19
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Interventions intended to reduce pregnancy-related outcomes among adolescents
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2006.12
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Teen pregnancy prevention programs are mostly ineffective – multi-component programs may work

    Teenagers who become pregnant, especially at a young age, face both immediate and long run negative consequences. Teen pregnancy prevention programs aim to reduce teenage pregnancy by promoting abstinence and using contraception. Evaluations show most programs evaluated fail to achieve these goals. However, there are reasons to continue evaluating pregnancy prevention programs as they evolve and the social context changes.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effectiveness of teenage pregnancy prevention programs in promoting abstinence, encouraging the use of contraception and reducing the likelihood of pregnancy among teens. The review summarise findings from 31 studies conducted in the United States or in developed countries with higher than average rates of unplanned teen pregnancy, such as Canada, England, New Zealand, and Australia.

    What did the review study?

    High rates of sexual activity, pregnancy and teen births, particularly in the United States, has led to a wide range of teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives, some emphasizing contraceptive use and others emphasizing abstinence as the primary means of reducing teen pregnancy rates.

    This review examines the effectiveness of teenage pregnancy prevention programs in lowering sexual activity rates, encouraging the use of contraception, and reducing pregnancy among teens.

    What studies are included?

    The review includes randomized controlled trials of teenage pregnancy prevention programs. Included studies focused on programs that primarily served youth between 11 and 18 years old. These programs included: one-time consultations, sex-education programs with an abstinence focus, sex-education programs with a contraception component, and multi-component youth development programs.

    The review includes 31 studies published prior to 2006, with include an aggregate sample size of over 37,000.

    What are the main results in this review?

    Taken together, the findings for each of the first three types of interventions- one-time consultations, sex education programs focused on contraception, and sex education programs focused on promoting abstinence- show no evidence of having reduced sexual activity or pregnancy rates among participating youth. The most promising results are for multi-component youth development programs, which resulted in modest reductions (six percentage points) in pregnancy rates among participants as compared with their control group counterparts. The impacts were larger for females than males.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    When this review of randomized controlled trials was conducted, most of the programs evaluated were not achieving their intended goals of reducing pregnancy rates.

    However, these results should not be interpreted as evidence to eliminate prevention efforts, for several reasons: (1) the studied programs may not be typical; (2) the social context has changed quite substantially in the 10 years since this review was published; and (3) teen pregnancy remains as a problem warranting intervention. There is value in building on these findings when designing interventions and assessing the effectiveness of adopted strategies.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until April 2006. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in October 2006.

  • Spanish

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Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people
  • Authors Eilin Ekeland, Frode Heian, Kåre Birger Hagen, Joanne Abbott, Lena Victoria Nordheim
  • Published date 2005-10-26
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Title Exercise to improve self-esteem in children and young people
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2005.4
  • Records available in English, Spanish
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Exercise interventions improves self-esteem in children and young people in the short-term but better research needed

    Exercising has positive physical health outcomes in children and adolescents. Exercise also has positive effects on self-esteem in children and young people, at least in the short-term. But the strength of the evidence is weak, and there is a lack of studies about long-term effects, so further research is needed.

    What did the review study?

    Psychological and behavioural problems are prevalent among children and adolescents. An improvement in self-esteem is one way of preventing the development of these problems.

    This review examines the impact of exercise interventions on the self-esteem of children and young people.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of exercise interventions on the self-esteem of children and young people. The review summarise findings from 23 studies conducted in the USA, Canada, Australia and Nigeria. Participants were children and adolescents between the ages of 3-20 A total of 1,821 participants were included in the studies.

    What studies are included?

    Included studies assess various exercise interventions including gross motor, energetic activity, for example, running, swimming, ball games and outdoor play of moderate to high intensity, and report on all measurements of children’s self-esteem using both randomized controlled trials and quasi- randomized trials. Studies that included children and young people with psychotic or borderline conditions, physical handicap, autism, eating disorders and chronic somatic/physical diseases were not included.

    A total of 23 studies consisting of 1,821 children were included in the final evaluation. Eighteen of the included studies were carried out in the USA, two in Canada, one in Australia and one in Nigeria. The duration of the interventions varied between four to 14 weeks

    What are the main results in this review?

    Exercise interventions have positive effects on self-esteem, at least in the short-term.

    The finding is the same for interventions which comprise exercise alone, and those including exercise as part of a more comprehensive intervention. There was no significant difference in effects according to the type of exercise intervention or intervention duration.

    No follow-up results were given so long-run effects are not known.

    What do the findings in this review mean?

    The main results presented in this review provide evidence of positive short-term effects of exercise on self-esteem in children and young people thus, supporting exercise interventions as a way of improving self-esteem.

    However, there are several methodological weaknesses including risk of moderate to high bias in the studies and insufficient data, which reduces the strength of the current evidence. As such, further research that provides stronger evidence of the effectiveness of exercise programmes on self-esteem is needed. Furthermore, there is a need for follow-up data to demonstrate the extent to which the effects of programmes are maintained over time.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The review authors searched for studies published until May 2003. This Campbell Systematic Review was published in October 2005.

  • Spanish

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