Better evidence for a better world

Campbell evidence and gap maps

Coming soon – Campbell EGMs are a new evidence synthesis product. Plain language summaries of our EGMs will be published on this website. The interactive EGMs and full EGM reports will be available in our journal on the Wiley Online Library platform: click here.



Learn more about Campbell EGMs

Other EGMs

Campbell has produced maps on other topics, sometimes in partnership with other organisations.



See our other EGMs
Search Result: 46 Records found
Page 1 of 5

K2_THE_LATEST

Effects of bystander programs on the prevention of sexual assault among adolescents and college students
  • Authors Heather Hensman Kettrey, Robert A. Marx, Emily E. Tanner-Smith
  • Published date 2019-01-04
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review
  • PLS Title Bystander programs increase bystander intervention but no effect on perpetrating sexual assault
  • PLS Description Sexual assault is a significant problem among adolescents and college students across the world. One promising strategy for preventing these assaults is the implementation of bystander sexual assault prevention programs, which encourage young people to intervene when witnessing incidents or warning signs of sexual assault. This review examines the effects bystander programs have on knowledge and attitudes concerning sexual assault and bystander behavior, bystander intervention when witnessing sexual assault or its warning signs, and participants’ rates of perpetration of sexual assault.
  • Title Effects of bystander programs on the prevention of sexual assault among adolescents and college students
  • Library Image Library Image
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2019.1
Factors associated with youth gang membership in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Angela Higginson, Kathryn Benier, Yulia Shenderovich, Laura Bedford, Lorraine Mazerolle, Joseph Murray
  • Published date 2018-11-29
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Evidence shows which factors predict gang membership in low- and middle-income countries, but more studies needed
  • PLS Description Youth gang membership is associated with delinquency, violent crime and trafficking – and gang members are themselves frequently the victims of these offences. Yet youth gangs can also provide a form of social capital, a sense of belonging and purpose to disenfranchised youth. This review identifies the factors associated with young people joining gangs, and the differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved youth. Understanding these associations is essential to reduce the levels of gang membership and the incidence of related violence.
  • Title Factors associated with youth gang membership in low- and middle-income countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.11
Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
  • Authors David B. Wilson, Iain Brennan, Ajima Olaghere
  • Published date 2018-06-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Police-led diversion of low-risk youth reduces their future contact with the justice system
  • PLS Description Youth misconduct and misbehavior is a normal part of adolescence and that misbehavior sometimes crosses the line from disruptive or problematic to delinquent. Nationally representative surveys of youth in the USA have indicated that minor delinquent behavior is normative, particularly for boys. The normative nature of minor delinquent behavior raises the question of how police should respond to minor delinquent behavior in a way that is corrective, but also avoids involving the youth in the criminal justice system beyond what will be effective in reducing future misbehavior. Police diversion schemes are a collection of strategies police can apply as an alternative to court processing of youth. Diversion as an option is popular among law enforcement officers, as it provides an option between ignoring youth engaged in minor wrongdoing and formally charging such youth with a crime. Police-led diversion has the potential to to reduce reoffending by limiting the exposure of low-risk youth to potentially harmful effects of engagement with the criminal justice system. This review examined whether police-led diversion and traditional processing of youth have different effects on rates of official delinquency.
  • Title Police-initiated diversion for youth to prevent future delinquent behavior
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.5
School-based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion
  • Authors Sara Valdebenito, Manuel Eisner, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi, Alex Sutherland
  • Published date 2018-01-09
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice, Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Interventions can reduce school exclusion but the effect is temporary
  • PLS Description School exclusion is associated with undesirable effects on developmental outcomes. It increases the likelihood of poor academic performance, antisocial behavior, and poor employment prospects. This school sanction disproportionally affects males, ethnic minorities, those who come from disadvantaged economic backgrounds, and those with special educational needs. This review assesses the effectiveness of programmes to reduce the prevalence of exclusion
  • Title School-based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2018.1
Sexual offender treatment for reducing recidivism among convicted sex offenders
  • Authors Martin Schmucker, Friedrich Loesel
  • Published date 2017-07-31
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Treatment of sexual offenders reduces reoffending, but more research needed to identify effective interventions
  • PLS Description This review integrates findings from six experimental and 21 quasi-experimental studies that compare groups of treated sexual offenders with equivalent control groups. These studies tested whether treated sexual offenders differed from the control groups in sexual and other reoffending.
  • Title Sexual offender treatment for reducing recidivism among convicted sex offenders
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2017.8
Juvenile curfew effects on criminal behavior and victimization
  • Authors David Wilson, Charlotte Gill, Ajima Olaghere, Dave McClure
  • Published date 2016-03-23
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Juvenile curfews are not effective in reducing crime and victimization
  • PLS Description This Campbell systematic review assesses the effects of juvenile curfews on crime and victimization. The review summarizes findings from 12 studies. The search for this review was updated in March 2014, and the review published in March 2016.
  • Title Juvenile curfew effects on criminal behavior and victimization
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2016.3
Preventive interventions to reduce youth gang violence in low- and middle-income countries
  • Authors Angela Higginson, Kathryn Ham Benier, Yulia Shenderovich, Laura Bedford, Lorraine Mazerolle, Joseph Murray
  • Published date 2015-11-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice, International Development
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title There are no rigorous studies of preventive interventions to reduce youth involvement in gangs in low- and middle-income countries
  • PLS Description Youth gang crime poses a serious problem for low and middle-income countries costing billions of dollars in harm, loss of life and social disruption. Preventive interventions are intended to stop crime before it occurs, either by preventing youth from joining gangs or by reducing recidivism by rehabilitating gang members outside of the criminal justice system. This review examines the effectiveness of these preventive interventions in achieving their aims, as well as identifying factors behind successful implementation in low and middle-income countries.
  • Title Preventive interventions to reduce youth gang violence in low- and middle-income countries
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.18
The effects on re-offending of custodial vs non-custodial sanctions
  • Authors Patrice Villettaz, Gwladys Gillieron, Martin Killias
  • Published date 2015-01-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Protocol Review Plain language summary Previous version
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Effects of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions on re-offending
  • PLS Description This Campbell systematic review compares effects of custodial and non-custodial sentences on reoffending. The authors found fourteen high-quality studies, including three randomised controlled trials and two natural experiments.
  • Title The effects on re-offending of custodial vs non-custodial sanctions
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2015.1
Cognitive-behavioural treatment for amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)-use disorders
  • Authors Takayuki Harada, Hiroshi Tsutomi, Rintaro Mori, David Wilson
  • Published date 2019-07-25
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review
  • Title Cognitive-behavioural treatment for amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)-use disorders
  • English

    PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY

    Cognitive‐behavioural treatment for amphetamine‐type stimulants‐use disorders

    What was the aim of this review?

    The aim of this Cochrane review was to find out whether cognitive‐behavioural treatment (CBT) is effective to treat people with amphetamine‐type stimulants (ATS)‐use disorders. Researchers in the Drugs and Alcohol Group of Cochrane collected and analysed all relevant studies to answer this question and found two studies.

    Key messages

    The current evidence was inadequate to draw any firm evidence‐based treatment recommendations for the client population.

    What was studied in the review?

    ATS are a group of synthetic stimulants and their use has been widespread globally. These types of drugs are highly addictive and prolonged use may result in a series of mental and physical symptoms including anxiety, confusion, insomnia (difficulty sleeping), mood disturbances, cognitive impairments (difficulty thinking and understanding), paranoia (irrational feeling that people are 'out to get you'), hallucinations (where someone experiences something that does not exist outside their own mind) and delusion (a mistaken belief).

    Currently there is no widely accepted treatment for ATS‐use disorder. However, CBT is often the first choice of treatment. It is a psychological treatment (talking therapy) approach to modify distorted thoughts and beliefs, and maladaptive behaviours (things that people do to stop them from adjusting to situations). The effectiveness of CBT for other substance‐use disorders (e.g. alcohol‐, opioid‐ and cocaine‐use disorders) has been well documented and as such this basic treatment approach has been applied to the ATS‐use disorder. These types of therapies are expected to prevent relapse and decrease drug use.

    What are the main results of the review?

    The review authors found two eligible studies. Both studies were conducted in Australia. One study compared a single session of brief CBT to a waiting‐list control where participants received no treatment during the study period. One study compared web‐based CBT to a waiting‐list control. Both studies were funded by the Australian Government of Health and Ageing.

    The review showed that when participants received CBT, compared to waiting‐list control, there was no difference. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that CBT was effective or ineffective at treating ATS‐use disorders.

    How up‐to‐date is this review

    The review authors searched for studies that had been published up to July 2018.

  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cl2.1026
Forensic nurse examiners vs doctors for the forensic examination of rape and sexual assault complainants
  • Authors Clare Toon, Kurinchi Gurusamy
  • Published date 2014-05-01
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review Plain language summary
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Forensic nurses provide cheaper and better clinical care for rape and sexual assault complainants than doctor counterparts
  • PLS Description In the UK incidents of rape and sexual assaults are referred to a sexual assault referral centre (SARC). These are typically headed by forensic doctors who conduct forensic examinations, collecting and documenting findings and preparing statements for court when requested by the police. In the United States, the equivalent institution for SARCs are headed by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANE). This review compares the reliability and efficacy of forensic nurse examiners (FNE) with that of doctors for the forensic examinations of rape and sexual assault complaints.
  • Title Forensic nurse examiners vs doctors for the forensic examination of rape and sexual assault complainants
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2014.5
Page 1 of 5

Contact us

  • P.O. Box 222, Skøyen,
    N-0213 Oslo, Norway
  • (+47) 21 07 81 00
  • info@campbellcollaboration.org