Full text keyword search[?]
"search" : Search for an exact word or phrase
-search : Exclude a word. Add a dash (-) before a word to exclude all results that include that word.
OR : Search for either word. If you want to search for pages that may have just one of several words, include OR (capitalised) between the words. For example, "labor" OR "labour" will show results containing pages with "labor" and "labour". Without the OR, your results will show only pages that match all terms.
intitle: Search for a word or phrase. Unlike the Title search field below the Keyword search field, you can combine terms. For example: intitle:female OR intitle:women will show results containing pages with "female" and "women" in the title.
intext: Search only in the description text field of the page. This field usually contains the abstract or summary of the publication.
Campbell systematic reviews
Browse by subject area
- Business & Management
- Crime & Justice
- International Development (including Nutrition)
- Knowledge Translation & Implementation
- Social Welfare
Learn more about Campbell systematic reviews
Campbell evidence and gap maps
Coming soon – Campbell EGMs are a new evidence synthesis product. Plain language summaries of our EGMs will be published on this website. The interactive EGMs and full EGM reports will be available in our journal on the Wiley Online Library platform: click here.
Learn more about Campbell EGMs
Campbell has produced maps on other topics, sometimes in partnership with other organisations.
See our other EGMs
Cross-border trafficking in human beings: prevention and intervention strategies for reducing sexual exploitation
- Authors: Peter Van Der Laan, Monika Smit, Inge Busschers, Pauline Aarten
- Published date: 2011-12-01
- Coordinating group(s): Crime and Justice
- Type of document: Review, User abstract
- Title: Cross-border trafficking in human beings: prevention and intervention strategies for reducing sexual exploitation
- See the full review: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2011.9
Effect of anti-trafficking interventions not known
There is growing international concern over trafficking for sexual exploitation. Many policies and interventions to combat trafficking have been initiated; however, a new Campbell review concludes that there are currently not enough rigorous evaluations to determine their effect.
Cross-border trafficking: a global problem
Human trafficking generally involves the use of force, fraud or coercion to enslave people in situations that are exploitative and in many cases illegal and dangerous. It occurs in a variety of sectors and industries. Cross-border trafficking for sexual exploitation has traditionally been the most commonly reported form of trafficking and accounts for the majority of all trafficking cases. The number of cross-border trafficking victims is estimated at anywhere from 600.000 to 2 million per year.
The goals of anti-trafficking policies and interventions vary. They range from awareness-raising and providing education and employment to victims, to changing legislation and prosecuting perpetrators. The literature suggests that most interventions focus on prevention activities directed at high-risk populations, victims, perpetrators, policy makers and/or the general population.
A difficult topic to research
This review found that due to a lack of high quality evaluation studies on anti- trafficking measures no conclusions can currently be made regarding the effectiveness of these policies and interventions.
Though unable to come to reliable conclusions about the effectiveness of anti- trafficking initiatives, the authors make some pertinent observations based on a narrative review of four studies. Firstly, evaluation studies are becoming more common in this field, which may indicate a growing interest in evidence-based practice. However, challenges regarding methodology and ethical concerns remain. The vulnerability of the target population and the secrecy of the crime make it a difficult topic to research.
Secondly, the goals of evaluation and monitoring activities range from evaluating the implementation of the intervention to evaluating the experiences of the individuals concerned. The diversity in measured outcomes poses problems when summarizing the research.
Thirdly, there is inconsistency across studies regarding the distinction between prostitution, trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, forced prostitution and voluntary migration for sex work. This confusion makes it difficult to compare interventions.
Finally, there seems to be a lack of reflection in the implementation of anti- trafficking policies and interventions. New interventions are being planned before ongoing interventions are properly evaluated. This approach is not only costly, but it can also be damaging to the end goal of preventing or suppressing trafficking. The authors emphasise the importance of effect studies in order to understand which support is valuable to victims and potential victims, and to which areas funding is best directed.
Facts about the review
This review searched for studies which examined the effectiveness of anti-trafficking measures (policies and interventions) to prevent or suppress cross-border trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Studies were not limited in terms of the population being studied (perpetrators, policy makers or victims) or where the intervention was implemented.
Of 20 studies which examined anti-trafficking interventions, none fit the criteria of being effect studies of potential sufficient quality i.e. experimental or quasi- experimental. Four of the 20 studies, however, were appropriate for a narrative review. These studies looked at anti-trafficking interventions aimed at cross-border trafficking for sexual exploitation. The results of the narrative review are outlined above.