Better evidence for a better world

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Better evidence for a better world
Better evidence for a better world

Better evidence for a better world (167)

Additional Info

  • Authors Esther Coren, Jemeela Hutchfield, Manuela Thomae, Carina Gustafsson
  • Published date 2010-12-07
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title Parent-training interventions to support intellectually-disabled parents
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2010.3

Additional Info

  • Authors Anthony Petrosino, Sarah Guckenburg, Carolyn Turpin-Petrosino
  • Published date 2010-03-10
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title Formal system processing of juveniles: effects on delinquency
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2010.1

Additional Info

  • Authors Alex R. Piquero, Wesley G. Jennings, David P. Farrington
  • Published date 2010-03-09
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review User abstract
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title Self-control interventions for children under 10 for improving self-control and delinquency and problem behaviors
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2010.2

Additional Info

  • Authors Joseph Murray, David P. Farrington, Ivana Sekol, Rikke F. Olsen
  • Published date 2009-12-31
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review User abstract
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title Parental imprisonment: effects on child anti-social behavior, crime and mental health
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2009.4

Additional Info

  • Authors David Farrington, Maria Ttofi
  • Published date 2009-12-15
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice, Education
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review User abstract
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title School-based programs to reduce bullying and victimization
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2009.6

Additional Info

  • Authors Nicole Egli, Miriam Pina, Pernille Skovbo Christensen, Marcelo Aebi, Martin Killias
  • Published date 2009-08-27
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title Effects of drug substitution programs on offending among drug addicts
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2009.3

Additional Info

  • Authors Faye Mishna, Charlene Cook, Robert MacFadden, Michael Saini, Meng-Jia Wu
  • Published date 2009-06-05
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Title Protocol Review User abstract Plain language summary
  • PLS Title Cyber abuse interventions increase knowledge on internet safety but do not decrease risky online behaviour
  • PLS Description While there are many benefits from the internet, it is a potential site for abuse and victimisation. The prevalence of cyber abuse (activities such as cyber bullying, cyber stalking, cyber sexual solicitation, and cyber pornography) is a growing problem. This review examines the effectiveness of cyber abuse interventions in increasing knowledge about internet safety and decreasing risky online behaviour.
  • Title Interventions for children, youth and parents to prevent and reduce cyber abuse
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2009.2

Additional Info

  • Authors Trevor Bennett, David Farrington, Katy Holloway
  • Published date 2008-12-31
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Protocol Review User abstract
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title The effectiveness of Neighborhood Watch
  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2008.18

Additional Info

  • Authors Evan Mayo-Wilson, Catriona Shatford, Paul Montgomery
  • Published date 2008-12-31
  • Coordinating group(s) Social Welfare
  • Type of document Review
  • Category Image Category Image
  • Title Personal assistance for adults (19-64) with both physical and intellectual impairments
  • English

    Personal assistance offers people with impairments choice of service and greater quality of life

    Six new Campbell systematic reviews examine research on the effect of personal assistance for people with impairments and elderly people. Several studies, including a large US randomised controlled trial, suggest that personal assistance increases the quality of life for elderly people as well as younger people with impairments. The state of evidence may change as new studies emerge.

    A widely used intervention

    People who have muscular dystrophy, suffer from a brain injury or who have become frail with old age often have difficulties taking part in society on equal terms with others. An increasing number of people are born with physical or intellectual impairments or acquire them later in life. Furthermore, the elderly population is increasing. A great number of local-government authorities therefore offer personal assistance for people with impairments to help people take part in all parts of society. Personal assistance is customised support that may include help in all areas of life, including transportation, social activities, work, education, shopping, eating and hygiene. Personal assistance is offered in different forms in most western countries. This type of intervention is especially widespread in the Nordic countries, where personal assistance is often a statutory right.

    Six new Campbell systematic reviews have examined the effect of personal assistance on quality of life for people of all ages with physical and intellectual impairments.

    Can increase quality of life

    A very large US randomised controlled trial examined the effect of personal assistance on quality of life and user satisfaction in four out of the six target groups, namely children with intellectual impairments, adults with physical impairments, adults with both physical and intellectual impairments and older adults (65+). The study suggests that personal assistance has a positive effect on quality of life and user satisfaction for all four target groups. The positive outcomes for older adults (65+) in this trial are consistent with outcomes in three smaller studies using less rigorous designs. Furthermore, the positive outcomes for adults with physical and intellectual impairments are consistent with the outcomes in another small study.

    The US study randomised the participants to personal assistance or to other publicly-paid support (the control group). Participation in the trial was on a voluntary basis, that is, participants were themselves interested in having a personal assistant. Participants with a personal assistant became more satisfied with life. About half were very satisfied with the way they were spending their lives,

    whereas this was true for only just under one-third in the control group. Children with intellectual impairments experienced the greatest progress, as reported by their parents.

    These studies all aim to assess ’soft values’ (such as quality of life and user satisfaction) as well as hard outcomes, such as nursing home admission. They show that rigorous research designs, including randomised controlled trials, can measure impacts on all sorts of outcomes. Randomised controlled trials actually provide a very accurate picture of the effect on users’ quality of life and satisfaction.

    One among many interventions

    In the systematic reviews, personal assistance is defined as: support for at least 20 per week, in the user’s home, by a paid assistant other than a healthcare professional. The paid assistant is therefore typically trained and employed directly by the user. In many places, users form cooperatives to help train and pay assistants. These user groups may charge a fee to handle administrative duties like performing background checks and collecting taxes.

    All six systematic reviews emphasise that there might also be disadvantages from personal assistance. Frequent replacements, low salaries and lack of training and education of paid assistants may limit positive impacts. Furthermore, there is the risk that a personal assistant might reduce rather than enhance a user's self-sufficiency relative to alternative forms of support. To allow people to make best use of resources, policymakers might allow people to spend money on assistants, home modification, assistive devices, transportation, or whatever mix of services they feel would be most useful.

    More studies are needed

    Four of the systematic reviews, the outcomes of which are outlined above, examine the effects for four different groups: older adults (65+), adults with physical impairments, adults with physical and intellectual impairments, and children and adolescents with physical impairments. For these groups, the authors found studies with relevant, reliable and mutually consistent outcomes.

    However, for the two remaining systematic reviews, the authors did not find any relevant studies of a quality high enough to warrant inclusion in the reviews. These reviews hoped to examine the effect of personal assistance for children with physical impairments and children with both physical and intellectual impairments.

    All six systematic reviews observe that personal assistance schemes are increasingly popular. However, personal assistance can be organised in different ways, and other combinations of services might be ideal for certain groups of people. Further studies would help users and policymakers determine the best mix of service options.

  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2008.2

Additional Info

  • Authors Brandon Welsh, David Farrington
  • Published date 2008-12-02
  • Coordinating group(s) Crime and Justice
  • Type of document Review
  • Category Image Category Image
  • PLS Title Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) as a crime prevention tool
  • PLS Description This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of closed circuit television (CCTV) on property crime and violent crime. The review reports on whether using CCTV results in crime displacement, and also assesses whether using CCTV leads to the spread of crime prevention benefits. The authors found 44 evaluations. The studies were from the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Norway and Sweden. Most of the studies (34) were from the United Kingdom.
  • Title Effects of closed circuit television surveillance on crime
  • English

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) as a crime prevention tool

    CCTV surveillance has a modest effect on personal property crime but not on levels of violent crime. CCTV can be effective in reducing crime in car parks.

    What is the aim of this review?

    This Campbell systematic review examines the effects of closed circuit television (CCTV) on property crime and violent crime. The review reports on whether using CCTV results in crime displacement, and also assesses whether using CCTV leads to the spread of crime prevention benefits. The authors found 44 evaluations. The studies were from the United Kingdom, the USA, Canada, Norway and Sweden. Most of the studies (34) were from the UK.

    What is the review about?

    The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance is increasingly common in public spaces. A common justification for using CCTVs is that it reduces crime by deterring potential offenders. CCTV surveillance may alert police and security personnel quickly so they intervene more rapidly. CCTV surveillance may help to make people feel safer and more secure.

    CCTV, however, is expensive. In the UK, it is estimated that between 1992-2002, more than £250 million of public money was spent on CCTV. This form of surveillance is the most heavily funded crime prevention measure outside the country’s criminal justice system.

    This review summarizes the evidence on the effects of CCTV surveillance cameras on crime in public spaces. The review examines which settings and conditions CCTV is most effective in, and whether the use of CCTV prevents crime overall or displaces it elsewhere.

    What studies were included?

    The systematic review included studies which investigate the effects of CCTV on property crime and violent crime. Studies including other interventions are included only if CCTV surveillance was the primary intervention. All studies have before-and-after measures of crime and compared an experimental area in which the intervention was used, with a control area in which it was not.

    The review summarizes 44 studies. The majority of the evaluations were conducted in four main settings: city and town centres, public transport, public housing, and car parks. In addition, two studies were conducted in residential areas, and one in a hospital. The majority of studies are from the UK (36). The other countries included are the USA (5), and Canada, Norway, and Sweden (1 each).

    How effective is CCTV in reducing crime?

    CCTV has a modest impact on crime. Effectiveness varies across settings. Surveillance is more effective at preventing crime in car parks, and less effective in city and town centers, public housing, and public transport. CCTV appears most effective in car parks at reducing vehicle crimes such as thefts from cars or stealing cars. The effectiveness of CCTV surveillance is greater when camera coverage of an area is high.

    CCTV surveillance does not have an effect on levels of violent crime.

    In all six of the CCTV car park studies, CCTV surveillance was an element in a broader package of crime prevention measures, such as extra security guards, better lighting, and fencing. It is not possible to assess the independent effects of each of these different components.

    The available evidence does not allow a conclusion as to whether CCTV leads to a displacement of crime or a diffusion of crime prevention benefits to other areas.

    What are the research and policy implications of this review?

    Implications for policy- and decision-makers CCTV can be a useful tool for reducing thefts from vehicles or thefts of vehicles in car parks. CCTV is less useful as a crime prevention tool in other settings. A more targeted, context-specific approach to the use of CCTV is therefore appropriate. CCTV is not an effective tool for preventing violent crime.

    Research implications

    There is a need to investigate further (1) why CCTV surveillance works in some settings but not in others, (2) whether CCTV reduces crime or shifts it elsewhere, and (3) longer follow-up periods as to whether crime reduction benefits are sustained over time.

    How up-to-date is this review?

    The search was completed in April 2007. This Campbell Systematic Review was published on 2 December 2008.

  • See the full review https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.4073/csr.2008.17
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